“Latest Android version- Life of smartphone”. The fastest changing technology is mobile technology. The androids head 84.8% of market share. We all are aware of the journey from cell phone to a smartphone.
Nowadays mobiles are the inseparable part of personal and professional life and so as android. However, Android software gives an enormous number of features in a phone. That’s why Android smartphones are the first choice to buy.
Android software is part of most of the smartphone. It’s growing very fastly. Let’s know more about Android technology. Before that, we go through the meaning and definition of Android Technology.
Android Technology: Backbone of Smart Phones
Android is not a phone or nor an application. It’s a software that makes your phone smarter than the normal phone. Basically, Android is an operating system based on Linux kernel and other open source software. It designed by Google, primarily used for touchscreen devices.
Moreover, Let’s see the latest version of Android
Latest Android Version: Android Pie
Pie (Android 9.0) is the latest version of Android. However, the Android 9 is first released as an alpha quality developer in March 2018. And then on 6 August is released in public.
Moreover, let’s have a look at highlighting feature of Android P
- The Android 9 offers Adaptive battery feature. So, it gives a better battery backup and maximizes battery power by emphasizing the app that mostly used by the user.
- A new user interface is developed for quick settings menu.
- An additional option is added for Screenshot to the power options.
- Transitions are added for shifting between apps or other activities of the app.
- The volume slider is now located adjacent to the device physical volume button.
- Battery status will always be shown on the display.
- Improved night mode.
- Provides High-Efficiency Image File Format Support.
- Accessibility features (Hidden Under Feature Flags menu).
- Add-on of a gesture-based system similar to of iPhone X and also in other devices.
- Shush feature- It automatically on DND feature when the phone is placed face down. So, only notify the allowed contacts.
- Adaptive brightness feature- Modifies screen brightness according to personal preference.
- One more back button icon in the navigation bar if the gesture navigation is enabled.
- There is indication button in the navigation bar for locked rotation mode.
- Multi-Camera Access- Access dual cameras.
- Concerns about Xbox One S wireless controller and provides controller mapping for this.
- Camera Intrinsic Calibrations.
- Wifi-RTT concerning indoor positioning.
However, all the features in Pie android version are advance. Let’s see other devices using the Android software.
Android History – Beginning of an Android Software
The Android history belongs to the year 2008. So, the first commercial Android device was introduced in 2008. Since now android had gone through multiple major releases. The current version of Android is 9 “pie” released in August 2018.
HTC G1 mobile is the first device used Android operating system. That is 1.6 version of Android also known as Donuts and support for both 2G and 3G. Furthermore, it has a screen resolution of 320 x 480 pixels with a density 180ppi, 528 MHZ processor, Adreno 130 graphics, A single core, 130 graphics, 192 MB RAM (Random Access Memory) and 256 MB ROM.
Besides, Android software development completely supports Java programming language. And also it’s not getting support by API(An application program interface) and JSE(Java Standard Edition). Now, Let’s take a look on Android Architecture
Android Architecture: Architecture Components of Android
Android Architecture is a combination of different software. However, the layers are split into five section and four layers? Here we have the Android architecture components
- Linux kernel
- Android runtime
- Application Framework
Furthermore, let’s describe each Android architecture components:-
However, the bottom of an Android is Linux Kernel. So, it supports a broad range of hardware. The kernel is the core of an operating system that manages input and output calls from software.
Furthermore, Linux adds basic system operations like process management. This provides basic system functionalities like process management, memory and device management for example camera, keypad, display etc.
Linux is good at networking and kernel handles everything in which Linux is good. Kernal does not interact directly with the user but interacts with the other shell, Hardware devices in the system and with other programs.
Linux Kernal is the Bottom layer. Now it comes Libraries that comes on top of Linux Kernal. However, this is a set of libraries includes opensource web browser engine WebKit, well-known libc, SQLite database.
So on its a repository for storage and sharing of application data and play and record audio and video. Purposely for internet security SSL libraries are responsible.
The Android Runtime provides the specially designed and optimized key component called Dalvik Virtual Machine. Besides, it is a Java virtual machine that runs apps in Android devices and process virtual machine in the operating system.
The Dalvik VM utilizes the Linux core feature like memory management and multi-threading that is also in Java language. It also enables every Android application to run its own process and executes the file in the .dex format.
An application framework provides the skeletal support also set of services that collaborate to create the system in which android application run and controlled. Thus, this framework makes a fact that Android application is created from the reusable, replaceable and interchangeable component.
Furthermore, the services combine in an application framework are:-
- Activity Manager– Manage and control lifecycle, activity stacks and other aspects of the application.
- Resource Manager − Gives access to non-code embedded resources. For example user interface, strings, colour settings etc.
- View System − It is an extensible set of views applied to create application user interfaces.
- Content Providers – This enables applications to publish and share data with other applications.
- Notifications Manager − This makes the application to display alerts and notifications to the user.
Now, the last layer is Applications-
Hence you find all the application at the top layer. You can write your application and install it at this layer. However, the application can be contacts, books, browsers, services etc.
Furthermore, Let’s have a look at all android version-
All Android Version: A to Z
All android version are different from each other. However, the interesting thing in all android version is that the developer coded them on the name of deserts. So, Let’s have a look at all versions of Android-
|Android Code||Android Version||Kernel Version||Release Date|
|1.0||September 23, 2008|
|Petit Four||1.1||2.6||February 9, 2009|
|Cupcake||1.5||2.6.27||April 27, 2009|
|Donut||1.6||2.6.29||September 15, 2009|
|Eclair||2.0-2.1||2.6.29||October 26, 2009|
|Froyo||2.2-2.2.3||2.6.32||May 20, 2010|
|Gingerbread||2.3-2.3.7||2.6.35||December 6, 2010|
|Honeycomb||3.0-3.2.6||2.6.36||February 22, 2011|
|Ice Cream Sandwich||4.0-4.0.4||3.0.1||October 31, 2011|
|Jelly||4.1-4.3.1||3.0.31 to 3.4.39||July 9 2012|
|KitKat||4.4-4.4.4||3.10||October 18, 2013|
|Lollipop||5.0-5.1.1||3.16||November 12, 2014|
|Marshmallow||6.0-6.0.1||3.18||October 5, 2015|
|Nougat||7.0-7.1.2||4.4||August 22, 2016|
|Oreo||8.0-8.1||4.10||August 21, 2017|
|Pie||9.0||4.4.107, 4.9.84, and 4.14.42||August 6, 2018|
That’s all in Android History
Android is already leading all the smartphone in the world and grabbing the tablet market too. It has a great journey to discuss. So, its a little effort make people aware of Android Technology.
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